The surface pressure versus molecular area isotherms of some carotenoids: β,β-carotene-4-one (echinenone, ECH), β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione (canthaxanthin, CAN) and 4,4′-diapo-ω,ω-carotene-4,4′-dial (APO), spread at the air/water interface, are reported. A van der Waals type state equation is used to describe the high molecular area portions of the compression isotherms and interaction parameters within monolayers are derived. Quantum chemical semi-empirical SCF MO calculations (AM1 and PM3) are performed for the optimized geometries of molecules and dipole moments are calculated. Similar theoretical magnitudes are obtained by both methods. Surface properties, like collapse pressure, surface compressional modulus and interaction parameters are discussed in terms of dipole-dipole interactions, and correlations with the calculated quantities for the carotenoid molecules are analyzed. The orientation of the different carotenoid molecules in the monolayer is discussed.
 M. Tomoaia-Cotişel and P.J. Quinn, Chapter 10: “Biophysical Properties of Carotenoids”. In: P.J. Quinn and V. Kagan (Eds.): Subcellular Biochemistry, Vol.30: Fat-Soluble Vitamins, Plenum Press, New York, 1998, pp. 219–242.
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