microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNA which suppress target gene expression. miRNAs are involved in most physiological and pathological process, including carcinogenesis. miRNA expression profiles help to improve lung cancer diagnosis, classification and prognostic information. Tumor suppressive and oncogenic miRNAs have been discovered and their functions have been investigated. Emphasis is placed on the development of miRNA-based methods for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy and future directions are proposed.
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