Cardiovascular calcification, manifested by coronary artery calcification and aortic valve stenosis, is a widespread condition that is becoming more common with the aging of the general population. No disease-modifying therapies currently exist for any forms of cardiovascular calcification. A number of similarities exist between pathological calcification in cardiovascular tissue and physiological calcification in bone, termed osteogenesis. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been shown to have multiple effects throughout the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the pre-clinical evidence supporting a role for microRNAs in osteogenesis, with a focus on cardiovascular calcification. The microRNAs with most evidence implicating them in the disease process are the miR-17~92 cluster, miR-23a/27a/24-2 family, miR-26a, miR-29b, the miR-30 family, miR-31, miR-125b, miR-133a, miR-143/145, miR-155, and miR-221/222. We also highlight the limitations of current evidence in this field, such as the lack of studies using high-throughput technologies.
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