It is becoming increasingly clear that there are unique sets of miRNAs that have distinct governing roles in several aspects of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, new tools allow selective modulation of the expression of individual miRNAs, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of how miRNAs drive the activity of immune cells, and how their modulation in vivo opens new avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in multiple diseases, from immunodeficiency to cancer. Recent contributions from our laboratory and other groups to novel formulations for miRNA mimetics are further discussed
 Kaya E, Doudna JA. Biochemistry. Guided tour to the heart of RISC. Science. 2012;336:985-6.
 Schirle NT, MacRae IJ. The crystal structure of human Argonaute2. Science. 2012;336:1037-40.
 Sempere LF, and Conejo-Garcia JR. Modulation of cancer progression by tumor microenvironmental leukocyteexpressed microRNAs. In Tumor Microenvironment and Myelomonocytic Cells. 2012, Subhra K. Biswas, ed. (Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Open Access Publisher): 221-54.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.