Sirtuins are a family of conserved enzymes that are involved in physiological and pathological pathways and have been investigated in relation to the ageing process. There are seven different sirtuins in mammals that are encoded by individual genes (SIRT1-7). Sirtuins share a highly conserved catalytic domain, and they have NAD+ dependent deacetylase activity and secondary ADPribosylase activity in different proportions and on different molecular targets. Sirtuins might be pharmacologically modulated by small molecules that might represent a novel class of “epigenetic” drugs. In fact, sirtuins’ deacetylase activity may impact the epigenetic regulation network acting on histones or affecting chromatin stability, while the mono-ADP-ribosylase catalysis is less explored to this respect. Here we review and discuss the potential impact of sirtuin catalytic activities from the epigenetic pointof- view, with a focus on age-related diseases (cancer,
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