Bimodal molecular mass distribution (MWD) of polymers, obtained upon polymerization of hydrocarbon monomers in the nonpolar media under the action of dilithium initiators, is the consequence of separation of the reaction mixture into two phases. Bifunctional /living/ oligomers produce the insoluble sediment due to tetrameric association of the lithium active sites (the swollen gel-fraction). Part of the active site remains in the solution (the solfraction). Difference in the concentrations of the active sites into the phases leads to difference between the propagation rates of the /living/ chains and, as a result, to Bimodal MWD. The mathematical model of polymerization in the two-phase system is proposed. Satisfactory agreement between the calculations and the experiments is shown for butadiene polymerization in heptane under the action of 1,4-dilithiumpentane. Regulation of MWD up to the complete elimination of bimodality is possible via the programmed dosage of monomer and solvent into the reactor.