Volatile compounds determine the organoleptic characteristics of grapes and wines. The main grape aroma compounds are monoterpenols and volatile benzene compounds. Aroma precursors, such as glycoside compounds and C13-norisoprenoids, are also present. These compounds are grape secondary metabolites, which are also studied for chemotaxonomic purposes. In winemaking, they are transferred to the product and the wine aroma profile is enriched by many fermentative compounds. This paper reviews the Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) methods used to study the grape and wine aromas. Despite the solvent use, SPE is still the more suitable method for the grape aroma compounds because it allows concentration of the analytes down to the microliter scale after starting from a considerable volume of sample. Moreover, it allows the semi-quantitative profiling of samples. On the other hand, SPME is effective in the analysis of compounds for which standards are available, with high efficiency, short time and no solvents use.
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 Weldegergis B.T., Croucha A.M., Górecki T., de Villiers A.,
Solid phase extraction in combination with comprehensive
two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight
mass spectrometry for the detailed investigation of volatiles in
South African red wines, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2011, 701, 98-111.
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SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.