Hydroxymethylfurfural (abbreviated as HMF), also 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, is an organic compound derived from dehydration of certain sugars. HMF is primarily considered as a starting material for liquid transportation fuels and polyester building block chemicals. The most convenient synthetic method of HMF is based on acidcatalyzed triple dehydration of fructose. Although there are many studies about fructose dehydration to 5-HMF since this field started to be investigated, it is necessary to provide a new review about fructose dehydration to 5-HMF. In the following, we will make a summary (in detail) of catalytic systems of fructose dehydration to HMF achieved by different acid catalysts, including mineral and organic acids, metal complexes, heteropoly acid-based materials, Ionic Liquids, ion-exchange resins, zeolites, functionalized carbonaceous materials and mesoporous silica materials. It has been demonstrated that nearly full conversion of fructose and 100% HMF selectivity could be obtained with some acidic catalytic systems up to now.
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