Stoma is an intestinal fistula created in emergency or by elective indications, and it is done to drain out the digestive tract content. In some patients there is a disturbance passage of gastric contents through the stoma, which may take the form of chronic constipation or even periodic subileus that will sooner or later require surgical treatment.
The aim of the study was the assessment of the causes and method of treatment of constipation in patients with intestinal stoma.
Material and methods. A total of 331 patients with stoma followed by Ostomy and Proctology Outpatient Clinic were included in the study in the years 2011-2014. The study included 146 women and 185 men and the average age was 61.3 ± 12.7 years. Within the entire froup, 273 patients had the end stoma performed whereas in 58 patients the loop stoma was created. The highest percentage of patients were the ones with diverticulosis and colorectal cancer, i.e. 132 and 114 patients respectively. A stoma was created in 35 patients due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in 23 patients because of cancer, in 14 as a result of injuries and in 13 due to rectovaginal fistula.
Results. Out of the entire group subject to study (331 patients) 93 patients (28.1%) suffered from constipation. 50 patients with constipation required surgical intervention. The most common indication for surgical treatment was the parastomal hernia (36 patients, 72%), other indications were the narrowing of the stoma (5 patients, 10%), its collapse (6 patients, 12%) or prolapse (3 patients, 6%). Parastomal hernia was responsible for 84% of constipation within the stoma and 86.1% were treated with laparotomy (31 out of 36 patients). Other causes of constipation were the stomal stenoses (5 patients), collapse of the stoma (6 patients) and stomal prolapse (3 patients). All patients were treated surgically with a good final result.
Conclusions. Constipation associated with dysfunction of the stoma in most cases should be treated surgically. Parastomal hernia is the most common cause of constipation in the stoma. Treatment should be performed in due time because of the possibility of developing complications, especially dangerous one is a strangulated parastomal hernia and ischemia of stoma.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.