In this study, palladium-modified nickel foam substrate was applied to examine ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in 0.1 The transport of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) ions from chloride solutions across polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), which 1-heptylimidazole (1̲) or 1-heptyl-2-methylimidazole (2̲) or 1-heptyl-4-methylimidazole (3̲) as the ion carrier was reported. The steric effect for carriers 2̲<bold />and 3̲<bold />decreases the transport of all ions except Cu(II). The initial fl uxes of metal ions transport across PIMs with the 1̲<bold />- 2̲<bold />decrease in the sequence: Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) > Ni(II), whereas for 3 they were Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II). The highest recovery values were obtained for Cu(II), this being 99 and 85% for carrier 1̲<bold />and 2̲, respectively. In both membranes the degree of deposition of the Zn(II) ions was comparable. Zn(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) ions, which form complexes with coordination numbers 4 and 6, are more easily recovered with the use of carriers 2̲<bold />and 3̲. Ni(II) ions, which form complexes with coordination number 6 only, practically remain in the feeding phase. PIMs with alkylimidazoles were characterized by non-contact atomic force microscopy.
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