This study was aimed at designing an optimised emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) for the extraction of rhodium from precious metal refinery wastewaters. The demulsification process and the structure of the optimised ELM are reported on. Two optimised ELMs were prepared. The first one contained a 30 % solution of toluene in kerosene as diluent with the following concentrations of the ELM components: 30.000 g/L (w/v) polyisobutylene, 10.870 g/L (m/v) of trioctyl amine and 51.001 g/L (m/v) of SPAN 80. The second ELM contained the same diluent, but the concentrations of the other ELM components in it were as follows: 20.000 g/l of polyisobutylene, 10.268 g/l trioctyl amine and 50.024 g/l of SPAN 80. The stripping phase was the same in both optimised ELMs, namely a 2 M solution of HNO3. The stripping phase and the diluent solution were mixed together in ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. Two methods were used to characterise the microdroplet diameters, i.e. optical microscopy and the Zeta-sizer. For the t-test, the p-value of 0.3018 at 5 % level of significance showed that there was statistically no significant difference in the mean micro-droplet size for 1:2 ELMs containing 20 g/l and 30 g/l of polyisobutylene after 40 minutes of emulsification. The best demulsification results were obtained using the chemical demulsification with polyethylene glycol with molecular weight of 400 g/mol (PEG 400) at 50 ± 1 °C for 24 hours. However, significant carryover of toluene, trioctyl amine and polyethylene glycol into the aqueous phase was observed.
 Matos M, Suárez MA, Gutiérrez G, Coca J, Pazos C. Emulsification
with microfiltration ceramic membranes: A different
approach to droplet formation mechanism. J. Membr.
 Floury J, Legrand J, Desrumaux A. Analysis of a new type of high
pressure homogeniser. Part B. Study of droplet break-up and
recoalescence phenomena. Chemical Engineering Science 59
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