Inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1), the major signaling pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, significantly decreases tumor growth and proliferation of glioma cells. To elucidate the role of IRE1- mediated glioma growth, we studied the expression of a subset genes encoding for TNF (tumor necrosis factor)- related factors and receptors and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells overexpressing dominant-negative IRE1 (dnIRE1). We demonstrated that the expression of TNFAIP1, TNFRSF10D, TNFRSF21, TNFRSF11B, TNFSF7, and LITAF genes is increased in glioma cells with modified IRE1; however, TNFRSF10B, TRADD, and TNFAIP3 is down-regulated in these cells as compared to their control counterparts. We did not find TNFRSF1A gene expression to change significantly under this experimental condition. In control glioma cells, hypoxia leads to the up-regulated expression of TNFAIP1, TNFAIP3, TRADD, and TNFRSF10D genes and the concomitant down-regulation of TNFRSF21, TNFRSF11B, and LITAF genes; while, TNFRSF10B and TNFRSF1A genes are resistant to hypoxic treatment. However, inhibition of IRE1 modifies the hypoxic regulation of LITAF, TNFRSF21, TNFRSF11B, and TRADD genes and introduces hypoxia-induced sensitivity to TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF1A, and TNFSF7 gene expressions. Furthermore, knockdown by siRNA of TNFRSF21 mRNA modifies the hypoxic effect on the IRE1-dependent rate of proliferation and cell death in U87 glioma cells. The present study demonstrates that fine-tuned manipulation of the expression of TNF-related factors and receptors directly relating to cell death and proliferation, is mediated by an effector of endoplasmic reticulum stress, IRE1, as well as by hypoxia in a gene-specific manner. Thus, inhibition of the kinase and endoribonuclease activities of IRE1 correlates with deregulation of TNF-related factors and receptors in a manner that is gene specific and thus slows tumor growth.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
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