Pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) 20–60 bp downstream of transcription start sites is a major checkpoint during transcription in animal cells. Mechanisms that control pausing are largely unknown. We developed permanganate-ChIP-seq to evaluate the state of Pol II at promoters throughout the Drosophila genome, and a biochemical system that reconstitutes promoter-proximal pausing to define pausing...
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