Ultra-high-intensity lasers have opened up a new avenue for the creation and detailed spectral measurements of dense plasmas in extreme thermodynamic conditions. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of heating a dense plasma (ρ > 1 gcm−3) to a maximum temperature of 560 ± 40 eV using a few-Joule, relativistic-intensity laser pulse. Particle-in-cell, radiation-hydrodynamic and atomic physics...
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