While the gold standard for clinical trials is to blind all parties—participants, researchers, and evaluators—to treatment assignment, this is not always a possibility. When some or all of the above individuals know the treatment assignment, this leaves the study open to the introduction of postrandomization biases. In the Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders (STRIDE) trial,...
Physical activity (PA) preserves mobility, but few practices screen older adults for mobility impairment or counsel on PA.
“Promoting Active Aging” (PAA) was a mixed‐methods randomized‐controlled pilot, to test the feasibility and acceptability of a video‐based PA counseling tool and implementation into practice of two mobility assessment tools.
Three primary care practices...
In the Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders (STRIDE) study, a multifactorial intervention was associated with a nonsignificant 8% reduction in time to first serious fall injury but a significant 10% reduction in time to first self‐reported fall injury relative to enhanced usual care. The effect of the intervention on other outcomes important to patients...
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of cognitive‐behavioral therapy (CBT) and yoga on late‐life worry, anxiety, and sleep; and examine preference and selection effects on these outcomes.
A randomized preference trial of CBT and yoga was conducted in community‐dwelling adults 60 years or older, who scored 26 or above on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire‐Abbreviated...
We propose a Systems Modeling Language (SysML) extension, referred to as the “Human‐Agent Teaming Modeling Language,” and a companion method, referred to as “Human‐Agent Teaming Design Method,” which are useful in the design and specification of teams comprised of humans and artificial agents which interact within a system. The language and method support the analysis and design of human‐agent teams...
To examine the relationship between time spent in light physical activity (LPA) and in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the pattern of accumulation on the risk for major mobility disability (MMD) in a large multicenter study of physical activity (PA) and aging, the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study.
Data were collected from individuals...
A model for assessing organic light‐emitting diode (OLED) display lifetime is developed and discussed for estimating OLED display lifetime in various applications. The lifetime model extends existing stretched exponential models of luminance decay for OLED devices to permit this decay to be estimated as a function of time and current density. This extended model is illustrated within an application...
Walking independently is basic to human functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) studies were developed to assess whether initiating physical activity could prevent major mobility disability (MMD) in sedentary older adults.
We review the development and selected findings of the LIFE studies from 2000 through 2019, including the planning phase,...
Our aim was to examine the impacts of baseline fatigue on the effectiveness of a physical activity (PA) intervention to prevent major mobility disability (MMD) and persistent major mobility disability (PMMD) in participants from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study.
Prospective cohort of individuals aged 65 years or older undergoing structured PA...
Long‐term acute care (LTAC) hospitals provide extended complex post–acute care to more than 120 000 Medicare beneficiaries annually, with the goal of helping patients to regain independence and recover. Because little is known about patients’ long‐term outcomes, we sought to examine the clinical course after LTAC admission.
Nationally representative 5‐year cohort study using 5%...
To assess the projected effect of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services new site‐neutral payment policy, which aims to decrease unnecessary long‐term acute care hospital (LTACH) admissions by reducing reimbursements for less‐ill individuals by 2020.
National 5% Medicare data (2011–12).
We examined the proportion of site‐neutral LTACH...
To determine why non‐mechanically ventilated hospitalized older adults are transferred to long‐term acute care (LTAC) hospitals rather than remaining in the hospital.
National Medicare data.
Non‐mechanically ventilated hospitalized adults aged 65 and older with fee‐for‐service Medicare in 2012 who were transferred to an LTAC hospital...
To explore whether baseline scores on the Mobility Assessment Tool—short form (MAT‐sf), a brief, animated, computer‐based means of assessing mobility that predicts mobility disability, are associated with number of hospitalizations and time to first hospitalization over a median follow‐up of 2.7 years.
Post hoc analysis of prospectively gathered data from the Lifestyle Interventions...
To investigate the heterogeneity of clinically meaningful levels of gait speed relative to self‐reported mobility disability (SR‐MD).
Five longitudinal studies with older adults in different health states (onset of acute event, presence of chronic condition, sedentary, community living) were used to explore the relationship between gait speed and SR‐MD.
Background Mobility is fundamental to maintenance of an independent lifestyle and can predict clinical outcomes after health events among older individuals. However, certain clinical situations do not accommodate physical or self-assessments. This investigation examines whether proxy-reported assessments of function using the Mobility Assessment Tool-short (MAT-sf) form is a reliable alternative....
To understand the influence of prehospital physical function and strength on clinical outcomes of critically ill older adults.
Secondary analysis of prospective cohort study.
Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.
Of 3,075 older adult Health ABC participants, we identified 575 (60% white, 61% male, mean age 79) with prehospital function...
To quantify the long-term (>2y) effects of lower extremity (LE) neuroprostheses (NPs) for standing, transfers, stepping, and seated stability after spinal cord injury.Single-subject design case series with participants acting as their own concurrent controls, including retrospective data review.Hospital-based clinical biomechanics laboratory with experienced (>20y in the field) research biomedical...
When a 400‐m walk test with time constraint (in 15 minutes) is administered, analysis of the associated 400‐m gait speed can be challenging because some older adults are unable to complete the distance in time (noncompleters). A simplistic imputation method is to calculate the observed speeds of the noncompleters as the partially completed distance divided by the corresponding amount of elapsed time...
As technology becomes more sophisticated, autonomous agents are applied more frequently to improve system performance. The current research employed a five step method, including modeling, simulation, and human experimentation to explore the effect of an artificial agent’s timing on the performance of a human-agent team within a highly dynamic task environment. Agent timing significantly influenced...
Relationships between early kidney disease, neurocognitive function, and brain anatomy are poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Cross-sectional associations were assessed between cerebral anatomy and cognitive performance with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in African Americans with T2DM.African Americans with...
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